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Cai Mao

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Cai Mao
Character Information
Force(s): Liu Biao's Forces
Cao Cao's Forces
Weapon Type: Spear (3~4, 6~7)
Sword (5)
Great Sword (8)
Unit Type: Warrior
Significant Battle(s):
First Appearance: Dynasty Warriors 3
Historical Information
Real name: Cài Mào
Chinese name: 蔡瑁
Style name:
Chinese name:
Born:  ?
Died:  ?
Executed in 208 in the novel.

Cai Mao (onyomi: Sai Bō) is a general who first serves Liu Biao. He shares family ties with Yueying, Zhuge Liang, and Liu Biao since his two elder sisters married Huang Chengyan and Liu Biao. It is said Liu Biao was only able to build his reputation due to Cai Mao's achievements.

His height in Kessen II is 175 cm (5'9").

Role in GamesEdit

The Dynasty Warriors series reduces his role to a minor general during Chibi. He is first to appear with Liu Biao before he meets with Cao Cao in the third title. In Dynasty Warriors 4, he appears to the north of the map near Cao Pi's unit. He also appears working with Huang Zu.

Cai Mao reappears in Dynasty Warriors 6, fighting at Chibi under Cao Cao. He fights against the allied forces. But if Lu Bu's army interferes with the battle and defeats Cao Cao and Sun Quan, he will fight with the allied forces due to Zhou Yu and Dian Wei's agreement to a truce between both forces.

Dynasty Warriors 8 has him appear again on Cao Cao's side at Chibi. In Wei's story, Cai Mao defects to the allied forces after the fire attack and has to be defeated in order to lower the bridge to the mainland for Cao Cao's escape. In the alternate version of the battle, Cai Mao defects to the enemy after Huang Gai and Han Dang are defeated. If he is defeated, he rejoins Cao Cao's ranks and lowers the bridge to the boat which is used to attack the allied forces.

Cai Mao is an optional general for Shu in Kessen II. Zhuge Liang offers a ploy to have Cai Mao defect by causing a rift between him and Cao Cao. If Liu Bei chooses to accept, a disheartened Cai Mao can join his side for Chibi as a secondary general. Should the player not agree to the scheme, he will instead antagonize Shu as a part of Wei's navy. Cai Mao's stats are overall low and not exactly ideal for battles throughout the game. However, he may prove valuable for dropping the morale of enemy forces at Chibi.

In Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Cai Mao is a decent officer with all of his stats in the 70's. Although not very skilled in combat on land, he is a good naval commander, emphasized by his high naval aptitude as well as his skill in the eleventh installment which increases the movement range of ships. He serves Liu Biao in all scenarios he is alive.

Voice ActorsEdit


  • "I don't want to lose you to some devious enemy scheme. Master Cai Mao, will you trust me and come back to us?"
"What? They tricked me? Let us board these ships and strike at their very core!"
~~Guo Jia and Cai Mao; Dynasty Warriors 8

Historical InformationEdit

Cai Mao was the only known son of Cai Feng. He was born in Xiangyang Commandary. His family lived in wealth and luxury, one of their splendid estates once stood in Caizhou. Their manor was surrounded with four angled walls made of blue stone and their servant maidens thrived in the hundreds. Along with their forty-five plots of farmland, the Cai family was an influential family of power. Cai Mao's aunt was married to the Minister of Works, Zhang Wen. His eldest sister was married to Huang Chengyan and his second eldest sister became Liu Biao's wife.

Among his family, Cai Mao was described as a self-made man of strong constitution and character. When Liu Biao became the Governor of Jingzhou, his neighbors, Su Dai and Bei Yu, didn't accept him. Therefore, Liu Biao stationed himself at Yicheng and ordered Cai Mao, Kuai Yue, and Kuai Liang to straighten matters between them. Through this plan, the area became pacified. Cai Mao gradually rose in ranks within Liu Biao's service and became General who Suppresses the South. After his sister gave birth to Liu Cong, Liu Biao further showed favor towards Cai Mao and Zhang Yun. Likewise, the vassal's bond with his master became friendlier.

According to the Record of Xiangyang, Cai Mao was actually scheming for Liu Cong to become the rightful heir and was only acting faithful to his liege on the surface. When Liu Biao was critically ill and Liu Qi looked as though he was trying to visit, Cai Mao feared his plans would be ruined by parental love. Therefore, he barred Liu Qi from entering and chased him away. Liu Bei's scroll in Record of the Three Kingdoms instead states Cai Mao and Kuai Yue plotted to assassinate Liu Biao. However, this entry has been criticized as being doubtful and unrealistic by the historian, Sun Sheng, due to lack of evidence and continuity with other historical records.

Liu Cong did succeed Jingzhou after his father's death, but shortly surrendered his rights to the land on threat of Cao Cao's invasion. Since Cai Mao was once Cao Cao's friend during their youth, the latter entered Cai Mao's home. Cao Cao turned to Cai Mao's wife and child and said, "Degui (Cai Mao), do you remember? Long ago, we were going to visit Liang Menxing (Liang Hu), but we could only seem to meet here. Being here today, what pride do I have to see your face?"

His rank under Cao Cao gradually rose until he became Marquis of Hanyang. According to Record of Xiangyang, a tomb and an elaborate stone statue of a giant deer was seen south of Cai Mao's residence. It suggests he lived his life in comfortable luxury. Cai Mao was treated warmly as though he were Cao Cao's old friend, but many people privately despised him. This negative reaction was mainly spurned by his unfair treatment towards Liu Qi.

Romance of the Three KingdomsEdit

Cai Mao is a general of Liu Biao in the novel. He helps Liu Biao in governing Jing Province with Kuai Liang and Kuai Yue. During the fighting against the men of Sun Jian, Cai Mao duelled Huang Gai, but flees after being hit near his heart. He and Kuai Yue later attack Sun Jian again when the latter is ambushed, but Sun Jian manages to escape. Afterwards, Cai Mao claims that fortifying their position in Xiangyang as suggested by Kuai Liang would be a stupid move and volunteers to fight the enemy. Cai Mao is given 10,000 troops, but after fleeing from a duel against Cheng Pu, his men are slaughtered. Kuai Liang urges Liu Biao to execute Cai Mao for this, but Liu Biao refuses. When Sun Jian is killed in an ambush, Cai Mao scatters the enemy forces during the confusion.

After Cao Cao defeats Yuan Shao at Guandu, he turns his attention to Liu Bei in Runan, who in turn sends Sun Qian as an envoy to Liu Biao to seek refugee. Cai Mao objects the plan, saying "Liu Bei first followed Lu Bu, then he served Cao Cao, and next he joined himself to Yuan Shao. And he stayed with none of these, so that you can see what manner of man he is. If he comes here, Cao Cao will assuredly come against us and fight. Better cut off this messenger’s head and send it as an offering to Cao Cao, who would reward you well for the service." Sun Qian manages to assure Liu Biao of Liu Bei's loyalty and Liu Bei is accepted into Jing. After Liu Bei aids Liu Biao in the defense against Cao Cao and positions his officers in key locations, Cai Mao complains to his sister that Liu Bei's actions are dangerous. Lady Cai in turn warns her husband about that. Eventually, Liu Bei is sent to defend the city of Xinye against Cao Cao's forces.

Liu Biao summons Liu Bei to a private dinner, and after some talk, in which Liu Bei convinces Liu Biao to make his oldest son Liu Qi heir instead of Lady Cai's son Liu Cong, Liu Bei states that having a starting point would make him not afraid of anyone in the world. After realizing what he said, Liu Bei pretends to be drunk and leaves. The conversation is overheard by Lady Cai, who, after her husband does not reply to her warnings, tells Cai Mao about it. Cai Mao decides to kill Liu Bei and gathers some men to go to Liu Bei's guest house. However, upon his arrival, Liu Bei had already left, so Cai Mao writes a poem on one of the partitions and informs Liu Biao about it, claiming that it was written by Liu Bei. The scheme fails in the end.

During a banquet sometime later, Cai Mao tries to ambush Liu Bei. He surrounds his residence, but Liu Bei manages to escape after being told by Yi Ji about Cai Mao's plot. Liu Bei manages to cross Tan River with his Hex Mark horse and when Cai Mao catches up with him, he asks him why he wants to kill him. Cai Mao says that he does not want to, but Liu Bei spots the arrow Cai Mao is fitting to his bowstring, so he flees. Upon Cai Mao's return, he is confronted by Zhao Yun and tells him that it was his duty to follow Liu Bei and he had left by the west gate. Liu Bei manages to return to Xinye and sends Sun Qian to inform Liu Biao about Cai Mao's actions. Liu Biao then orders Cai Mao's execution, but Sun Qian steps in and Cai Mao is only heavily reprimanded.

After the death of Huang Zu, Liu Qi offers to guard Jiangxia in an attempt to escape the Cai family's influence. After Liu Biao grows seriously ill, he summons Liu Bei and asks him to serve as a guardian to his son Liu Qi. Soon afterwards, Cao Cao leads an invasion and Liu Bei leaves to defend, with Liu Biao naming him guardian and his son Liu Qi successor. However, when Liu Qi wants to see his father, Cai Mao and Zhang Yun block his way and he is forced to return to Jiangxia. Liu Biao eventually dies and the Cai family appoints Liu Cong as his successor. They decide to surrender Jing Province to Cao Cao.

When Liu Bei hears about this, he leaves Fan and goes to Xiangyang. Cai Mao sets fire to the outer castle walls, but Wei Yan opens the gates, calling Cai Mao a traitor. Liu Bei still decides to withdraw instead of fighting. Liu Cong is then summoned by Cao Cao and Wang Wei suggests attacking Cao Cao. A quarrel between Cai Mao and Wang Wei starts, but Liu Cong manages to settle it. Cai Mao and Zhang Yun visit Cao Cao at Fan and tell him about the size of Jing's army and navy. Cao Cao appoints Cai Mao to be in charge of the newly acquired navy.

During the battle of Chibi, Cai Mao and Zhang Yun are defeated by the Wu forces. They are pardoned by Cao Cao and ordered to build a large base at the river bank. Cao Cao sends Jiang Gan to spy on Zhou Yu, since they are old friends. Jiang Gan spots a letter by Cai Mao and Zhang Yun, who announce their surrender to Wu. Additionally, while Jiang Gan pretends to be sleeping, a soldier informs Zhou Yu that Cai Mao and Zhang Yun could not carry out their surrender in time. Jiang Gan leaves and tells Cao Cao about it, who then orders Cai Mao and Zhang Yun to attack Wu. After they both refuse, stating that their troops are not sufficiently trained, Cao Cao confronts them with their supposed surrender. Both remain silent as they don't know what Cao Cao is talking about, so Cao Cao orders their execution. Later, Cao Cao discovers that it was a mere plot by Zhou Yu.


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