Liu Shan
Liu Shan Artwork (DW9)
Character Information
Force(s): Shu
165 cm (5'5")
Weapon Type: Rapier (7~8, 9)
Bench (8:E)
Playable Debut: Dynasty Warriors 7
Historical Information
Real name:
Líu Shàn
Chinese name:
劉禪 - 刘禅
Style name:
Chinese name:
Posthumously known as Emperor Xiaohuai
Warriors Orochi Info
Character Type:

Liu Shan (onyomi: Ryū Zen) is Liu Bei's eldest son and successor. Even when named figurehead leader of Shu, Liu Shan isn't known to have done much to help his country prosper. He is infamously known under his childhood name in Romance of the Three Kingdoms, A Dou (阿斗), which is also an idiom for an incompetent person. His two wives are Zhang Fei's daughters.

Prior to his playable Dynasty Warriors appearance, he was the infant battlefield item and became a Shu NPC in the fourth title's Xtreme Legends expansion. Gamecity's Dynasty Warriors 7 character popularity poll has him as forty-second place and fiftieth in the Dynasty Warriors 8: Xtreme Legends poll. The latest poll for the eighth installment puts him in fifty-fourth. The character poll for overseas fans puts him in twenty-first place for the Shu division.

Before Dynasty Warriors 7 was ported overseas, Koei titles addressed him as Liu Chan in their English localization.

Role in GamesEdit

"You may play the fool, but your spirit reveals the truth."
~~Motochika; Warriors Orochi 3

Dynasty WarriorsEdit

He is portrayed as an effeminate and cowardly monarch during Jiang Wei's Legend Mode in Dynasty Warriors 4: Xtreme Legends. Liu Chan fears the incoming Wei army and thinks surrender is the only option for saving his own skin.

In Dynasty Warriors 5, he takes over the Shu kingdom after Liu Bei's death. He is left to defend Shu's land after an invasion from Wu at Bai Di Castle. Furthermore, Zhuge Liang is busy at Wu Zhang Plains and is unable to help Liu Chan. Only Ma Chao, Huang Zhong, Jiang Wei, and Xing Cai remain to guard him. Liu Chan is depicted as gentle, weak, and untrained. Lovestruck by the maiden, he sorely wishes for Xing Cai to stay behind and wishes he had Guan Ping's strength so he can properly protect her. During the battle, he will rush to her aid should her health drop to low levels. After the battle, however, he vows to grow stronger to protect his people during Shu's scenarios. Xing Cai's ending scene shows Liu Chan struggling to train with her. His fate in other scenarios is not clearly mentioned as Zhuge Liang usually serves as the commander of Shu in the games.

He was removed from the sixth game but is still mentioned in the Encyclopedia entry "A Dou" and the Three Kingdoms section.

For his playable appearance in Dynasty Warriors 7, Liu Shan is rescued by Zhao Yun at Changban in Shu's Story Mode and later appears again as Liu Bei's heir after his father's death. His ascension is plagued with rumors of his inexperience and causes uncertainty among those in his ranks. In Jin's Story Mode, he leads Shu's Army at the final Battle of Chengdu. He personally faces Sima Zhao in a duel. The commander implores for Liu Shan's surrender to revitalize the dated world around them. When he is defeated, Liu Shan contemplates the plea and returns to Chengdu to ponder it. He agrees to it only when the Wei army reaches the gates of his domain, and he is given the rank of a duke under Sima Zhao. During the solemn victory banquet, Liu Shan merrily encourages his supporters to not dwell on the past. He reasons that a future with endless possibilities is more promising.

His first Legend Battle has him face the Wei forces alongside Zhao Yun at Changban and defeat Sima Yi. He defends Chengdu against Wei in his second Legend Battle. Liu Shan fights personally to protect his homeland and eventually defeats Sima Zhao and Sima Shi.

The Xtreme Legends expansion adds a Hero Scenario specifically dedicated to his participation. After Shu's kingdom falls, both Zhong Hui and Jiang Wei join forces to create their rebellious independent state in Shu. Sima Zhao wishes to cut their upstarts before they become problematic, dragging Liu Shan with him. Although well aware of the irony in attacking his own homeland, Liu Shan participates with the hopes of restoring peace. On the pretense of reliving his childhood memories, Xing Cai accompanies him west to retrieve Yue Ying's "old toys" and to the center to visit his old friend held captive. Through the opening in the enemy formation, he locates and kills Jiang Wei. Stating that he had no other option, a large portion of Shu loyalists within the enemy ranks falter due to Liu Shan's conviction and retreat.

He then corners Zhong Hui and slays him. Both he and Sima Zhao pity the rebel leaders for they centered themselves on a narrow future, as opposed to seeing a variety of options they could have chosen. Liu Shan, tired of war and politics, decides to entrust Sima Zhao the task of creating a better future and departs to live his own life. Sima Zhao gives his respectful blessings and watches him leave the battlefield.

Liu Shan first appears in Dynasty Warriors Next as an infant in the fifth chapter. Zhao Yun spirits him away to safety following a steeplechase event at Changban. After the fall of Wu in Shu's final chapter, the fully grown Liu Shan volunteers to join his father's army in order to please him. During Shu's ending, he is seen greeting the younger officers together with Xingcai. Jin's chapter has him take over as leader of Shu. He entrusts the fate of his army to Jiang Wei, though the latter's strategies prove ineffective against the encroaching forces of Sima Yi. Cornered at Chengdu, he is slain by Sima Zhao who empathizes with the young ruler over living in the shadows of their respective fathers.

In Dynasty Warriors 8, Liu Shan will be separated from Liu Bei's main unit at Changban, and Zhao Yun must clear a village from Cao Cao's men in order to retrieve the infant. As an adult, Liu Shan joins the fight at Tianshui. After defeating Jiang Wei, he kindly convinces the young strategist to join Shu. In the hypothetical route, Liu Shan accompanies his father to Xuchang to defeat Cao Cao.

In Jin's historical route, he reprises his previous role, only appearing in the final battle at Chengdu. As for the hypothetical route, he will still be Shu's leader, but this time he fights against Sima Shi. Despite objections, Liu Shan arrives as unexpected reinforcements for Shu at Chengdu. However, this has a negative effect as the Shu forces are forced to change their objective to protecting Liu Shan rather than fighting Wei, as he is now a priority target. Though he is captured, Jiang Wei ambushes Sima Shi later in the night with help from the Nanman. The attempt to rescue Liu Shan eventually fails, and Liu Shan is relocated to Chang'an.

He appears in some of the new scenarios for Shu in the Xtreme Legends version. One of them highlights a fictional defense of Yong'an while Jiang Wei is away. Liu Shan, Xingcai, and Yueying are charged with defending the territory's castle against the invading forces of Wu. In one of Jin's additional stages, he is present in the final subjugation of both Zhong Hui and Jiang Wei at Shangyong, where he finally convinces Jiang Wei to lay down his arms.

During 9, he is given more importance after Zhuge Liang's death, as he often deliberates with Huang Hao and Jiang Wei and the other military officers regarding the next move. While he permits Jiang Wei's campaigns, he progressively becomes more reluctant and frustrated by the inadequate and costly results, though he keeps these sentiments hidden. His surrender is largely the same. As he is being escorted away, he wishes for his people to live the remainder of their lives happily but is instead met with jeers and insults. While Xingcai senses her lord's pain, he wishes to bear the burden alone as it was his decision that put an end to the dreams of his father, the fallen retainers and the people.

Warriors OrochiEdit

In Warriors Orochi 2, Liu Chan serves as Liu Bei's replacement officer when players assume his father's role. He reacts with dismay if Xing Cai is forced to withdraw during their conflict against Sun Wukong in the Wuhang Mountains.

Liu Shan had previously traveled the dimensional realm with Xingcai and Jiang Wei in Warriors Orochi 3. When his comrades were taken hostage by the serpent army, Liu Shan was coerced to fight for the serpent army. After being defeated by the coalition at Hasedō, he agrees to join their cause to rescue the hostages at Xuchang.

When he hears that Jiang Wei lost his life in the past, he desires to save his comrade by working together with Zhang He who was once held captive at Xuchang. Relying on his comrade's account, Liu Shan and his party return to the past at Mt. Xingshi. They defeat Zhong Hui's army who is the one responsible for causing Jiang Wei's demise in the original time line. Without the obstruction in the past, Liu Shan believes Jiang Wei to be hiding at Xuchang within the altered future. His prediction is correct as they find and rescue the isolated general. He and his party also learn the wonders of kemari when they investigate Liang Province.

Liu Shan, alongside Xingcai, are one of the couples who are seen bickering in one of the downloadable stage Domestic Disputes. As Xingcai is attempting to get him to train for the upcoming battle with Orochi's forces, he complains of a headache and claims he can no longer fight. He eventually returns and vows to fight alongside Xingcai, and the other arguing couples, against the incoming Orochi army.

In "The Search For Liu Shan", Liu Shan attempts to shirk Xingcai's training regimen only to be ambushed by Da Ji's group.

During the new chapter in Ultimate, Liu Shan and company chase Da Ji at Hinokawa only to lose sight of their target.

Romance of the Three KingdomsEdit

In the Romance of the Three Kingdoms series, Liu Chan can either follow his father's footsteps or appear as a random secondary officer. He has one of the lowest stats in the series, coming in at a mere total of 21 points in the twelfth title.

Character InformationEdit

Liu Shan 15th Anniversary Artwork (DWEKD)

Liu Shan's Shin Sangoku Musou 15th Anniversary artwork.


To provide a typical heroic image found in Warriors titles, Liu Shan was designed to avoid the idiot image found throughout fiction. He was added to bridge the gap between Shu and Jin, since Liu Bei doesn't live long enough to see the fall of his kingdom. He was designed to be a normal person with a smiling visage who additionally dresses in a fashion fitting for an emperor. Since developers strove to perceive him to not be as strong as his father, he wields the easier-to-use rapier for his weapon of choice. His chosen weapon is meant to mirror his father's heavier dual swords.


A young man with a mountain of expectations hefted onto his shoulders, Liu Shan is a quiet and calm individual who keeps a soft smile on his face at all times. He allows others to think he is a fool and lacks skills in combat, but he trains in secret to respect those fighting for his father's cause. Liu Shan feigns childish ignorance to proceed with his strategies in the battlefield, secretly controlling his unsuspecting vassals to do what he requires of them with his seemingly flippant wanderings. He continues his charade on the pretense that it protects himself and his kingdom, but mainly due to fear of his implied dangerous capabilities. Pretending to be a fool is safer than causing unintended harm to others in Liu Shan's eyes. The emperor is therefore relieved when he is relinquished of his duties, as he is no longer forced to be a potential threat to those around him. If there's anyone who Liu Shan believes can truly understand him, it's Sima Zhao. Liu Shan sympathizes with the Wei commander at how both of them have been forced to fight within the shadows of their predecessors, and the emperor laments how they must meet as enemies.

During 9, more of Liu Shan's hidden emotions are traced only by Xingcai. His frustrations with Jiang Wei's needless and constant northern campaigns as well as being ridiculed by the people for surrendering all draw more of his ire, though for the sake of unity, he relents to take responsibility. He also holds more conflict towards Jiang Wei, even asking him upfront why repeated campaigns must be waged and questioning the path that they've taken.

His Dynasty Warriors 5 incarnation has one-sided affections for Xingcai, but the attraction is mutually shared between them for their later incarnations. Dubbing her his "Shining Star of Hope", Liu Shan is thankful for her constant protection and steadfast support. He befriends Motochika and Yoshimoto in his Warriors Orochi appearance.

Character SymbolismEdit

His third weapon in Dynasty Warriors Next and fourth in Warriors Orochi is one of Cao Cao's twin swords in Romance of the Three Kingdoms. As Zhao Yun searched for an infant Liu Shan during the retreat at Changban, he killed a pursuing Xiahou En and took the sword as his prize. Unlike the version of the blade Cao Cao uses in the games, Liu Shan's version uses the sword's original name as opposed to one of its many monikers.

Voice ActorsEdit

  • Tony Oliver - Dynasty Warriors 5 (English-uncredited)
  • Steve Staley - Dynasty Warriors 7~8 (English-uncredited)
  • Dennis Pastorizo - Dynasty Warriors 9 (English)
  • Xiang Li - Dynasty Warriors 9 (Chinese)
  • Moriya Endō - Dynasty Warriors 4~5 (Japanese)
  • Taiki Matsuno - Dynasty Warriors 7~9, Warriors Orochi 3 (Japanese)
  • Shinichiro Ota - Romance of the Three Kingdoms drama CD series


See also: Liu Shan/Quotes
  • "Though I may not possess the strength of my father, I share his love of virtue."
  • "I must defend my father's kingdom. Noble spirits, lend me your strength!"
  • "My lord! It's time for weapons training."
"Very well. Good luck with that."
"My lord... I meant it's time for your weapons training..."
"Really? I wish you'd give me a bit more warning next time."
~~Xing Cai and Liu Shan; Dynasty Warriors 7
  • "I don't think that is such a good idea. As dimwitted as I am, I don't think I'll be of much use."
"Hmmm... Perhaps you're not as foolish as you... Never mind, let's just leave it at that then."
~~Liu Shan and Sima Zhao; Dynasty Warriors 7: Xtreme Legends
  • "As the son of Liu Bei, do you think you can achieve great virtue?"
"I am just a simple minded fool. You shouldn't put much faith in me."
"Knowing oneself is not something a fool can do. You simply have yet to realize your own potential."
"Hah... Why does everyone always have such high expectations of me?"
~~Zuo Ci and Liu Shan; Dynasty Warriors 8
  • "As long as we both rise up against the chaos, we have no choice but to fight. I shall personally bring an end to Shu's destiny!"
"Why does everybody always want to fight? Surely, there must be a better way..."
~~Sun Quan and Liu Shan; Dynasty Warriors 8: Xtreme Legends
  • "I promise you I will try, so let us see what happens. Just do not make anymore problems for me."
"I am not the source of your problems. That would be the talent you have hidden. Now you must face it."
"Oh, why does it have to be so complicated?"
~~Liu Shan and Motochika Chōsokabe ; Warriors Orochi 3


Keys: Square Normal Attack • Tri Charge AttackCircle MusouX Jump/Mount

Dynasty Warriors 7Edit

Liu Shan is affiliated with the rapier in this appearance. When he is equipped with it, he can perform a unique attack exclusive to him. Upon performing his Musou techniques, he will automatically use the weapon in his attacks.

EX Attack: Square, Square, Tri, Tri: Does a lightning-energy slash which circles around him as he does a 180 turn. The attack is dubbed as "Hiden, Raikōjin" (秘伝, 雷光刃, Mystery, Lightning Blade) in the Japanese scripts.
Musou - Lightning Wave (斬撃双雷掌): Circle: Reaches his free hand forward, then slams his blade to the ground to send forth lightning and energy wave. Classified as a Blast Musou in Next and used in Warriors Orochi 3.
Alternate Musou - Thunder Kick (飛雷蹴): R1 + Circle: Charges forward with a kick infused with lightning.
Dynasty Warriors Next
Speed Musou - Whirlwind: Tap both sides of screen: Liu Shan creates a tornado around himself while slowly twirling his weapon upward, then finishes the attack by emitting sparks of lightning to repel the enemy. Following the attack's movements causes the tornado to grow stronger and generate electricity.
Warriors Orochi 3
Tri: Leans forward to grab someone. Once Liu Shan connects, he shoves them away with no damage, allowing for a free followup. Unblockable.
X, Tri: Jabs downward several times before diving on the ground to cause an impact, knocking down nearby opponents.
R1: Turns around with his weapon planted down to the ground and nods, which damages enemies nearby and also applying weapon elements upon execution. A buff special similar to his father's R1, as it also causes health to slowly regenerate, only it instead grants temporary protection from all attacks as an extra bonus.
X (Cancel): Dashes forward with his sword thrusting forward.
X, R1 (Ultimate only): Delays in midair a bit as he drops down to plant his weapon into the earth. Causes bolts of lightning that split apart from the center to both left-and-right, and acts as a minor version of his father's aerial R1 attack.

Dynasty Warriors 8Edit

『真・三國無双7』 劉禅

『真・三國無双7』 劉禅

Liu Shan keeps the same moveset from the previous title with the following additions.

EX Attack 2 (Xtreme Legends only): Square, Square, Square, Square, Square, Tri, Tri: Conjures a refreshing breeze to restore lost health.
Aerial Musou - Avian Strike (鳥襲腿): X, Circle: Leisurely jumps on top of nearby enemies four times (with arms behind himself) before back flipping unto the ground to produce a large shockwave. If any of the jumps fail to hit an enemy, he simply emits a smaller shockwave upon landing.
Awakening Musou: Slashes upward several times in a row. He ends the attack 360 spinning slash that releases a burst of energy that knocks away surrounding opponents. After accumulating enough hits, he begins to strike diagonally with fiery streaks before performing two extra kicks near the end.

Dynasty Warriors 8: EmpiresEdit

Liu Shan is affiliated with the dragon column in this appearance.

EX Attack 1: Square, Tri: Liu Shan rotates his weapon continuously to produce a launching whirlwind, then slams it unto the ground to knock the surrounding enemies away.
EX Attack 2: Square, Square, Square, Square, Tri: Uses own weapon to relax; the act releases an aura that restores health while stunning nearby foes.
Musou - Wild Splitter: Circle: Performs a melee attack consisting of one rotating swing, two circular strikes, and a fierce horizontal swipe. Each hit is done counterclockwise while emanating wind.
Alternate Musou - Intense Pressure: R1 + Circle: Liu Shan hits a nearby target, pins them on the ground, and lies down on top of them. Surrounding opponents are knocked aside from the shockwave emitted by the last two sequences of this attack.
Aerial Musou - Impact Shockwave: X, Circle: Liu Shan tumbles in the air before violently placing his bench on the ground and sitting on it.
Awakening Musou: Rams towards the opponent and smacks them with multiple overhead swings, ending the assault with one final swipe to generate a powerful shockwave. The extended version has Liu Shan pick up the pace by unleashing more arcing swings followed by an interlude of alternating horizontal swipes.


See also: Liu Shan/Weapons

Dynasty Warriors 8Edit

Liu Shan still uses the rapier as his default weapon in this title. But starting in Dynasty Warriors 8: Empires, his new weapon of choice is the dragon column.

Historical InformationEdit

Personal InfoEdit

Liu Shan was the son of Liu Bei and Lady Gan. He was born when Liu Bei was stationed under Liu Biao. There are hardly any records of him taking part in his country's wars. His role as a leader was supposedly dedicated to "rectifying the morality of the court". His few recorded rulings within the court seem to reflect this concept. There were comparatively fewer revolts in Shu than there were in Wu or Wei.

However, Liu Shan is notorious for not reacting or paying attention to the political strife caused by the wars around him. Chen Shou, who lived in the same era as Liu Shan, even remarked, "He did not resort and relish in cruelty as Sun Hao did, but I cannot say that he ruled with absolute justice or fairness." Chen Shou wrote that Liu Shan was the type of person who was swayed by flattery. If the people around him thought he was good, then he would accept them. Should they say anything otherwise, he would deem them useless. According to Li Mi's scroll in Book of Jin, he is compared to Duke Huan of Qi: a bit too trusting of his retainers to the point it was almost laughably easy to gain his trust. A statue dedicated to Liu Shan has been erected in Chengdu countless times. Each time it is created, it is torn down by negative protesters.

In the dubiously accurate Hanjin Chunqiu, Sima Zhao entreated the defeated Shu vassals to a banquet with the Wei victors. When a song of Shu was played at the banquet, the former followers of Shu wept. Despite the moving spectacle, Liu Shan kept a smiling countenance. An incredulous Sima Zhao was surprised by how much Liu Shan ignored the feelings of his followers, retorting that Zhuge Liang and Jiang Wei's efforts were wasted on him.

Later Sima Zhao inquired if Liu Shan had missed Shu and was answered with a content no, for Liu Shan was very pleased in his new surroundings. Xi Zheng patronized Liu Shan and instructed him to say, "Yes, I do. In the west there lies the grave of the Prime Minister (Zhuge Liang). I have nothing less than sorrow for the west". Liu Shan did as he was told when Sima Zhao repeated his question. Liu Shan was surprised when Sima Zhao correctly deduced that these same words were uttered by Xi Zheng. Sima Zhao then said to himself, "With a lord like this man, not even someone like Kongming (Zhuge Liang) could have prevented Shu's demise." He then started to feel sympathetic towards the former retainers of Shu.

Liu Shan had two wives and two known mistresses. He fathered seven sons and three daughters.

Life and DeathEdit

During the escape at Changban, Zhao Yun escorted him and his mother to safety. Liu Shan became the next emperor of Shu when he was only 17 years old. In the years 227-234, Zhuge Liang launched five of his Northern Expeditions. He succumbed to illness and was buried at Dingjunshan. According to the Hanjin Chunqiu, Liu Shan was dressed in the white robes of mourning for three days to remember him. Afterwards, Liu Shan eventually favored Huang Hao over his other advisors apparently due to the flattery the elder said to him. He is noted to have spent most of his days enjoying himself in his harem.

When Xiahou Ba surrendered to Shu, he was brought before Liu Shan. Liu Shan said, "Your father may have lost his life in battle, but it wasn't by my father's hand. Besides," –here he points to his wife– "she is a niece of the Xiahou family." He then granted passage to the defector and rewarded him handsomely. In 260, he is known to have rewarded posthumous titles to several generals.

Since Liu Shan placed his absolute trust in Huang Hao, Huang Hao rose to prominence as the de facto leader of Shu. People who opposed Huang Hao suffered greatly due to the control he had over Liu Shan. This included the refusal to send reinforcements for Jiang Wei's northern expeditions, which further weakened Shu's security and military power. During Huang Hao's manipulative reign in politics, Liu Shan is noted to have done nothing to oppose him.

Once Wei pushed onwards into Shu territory, Jiang Wei urged his liege to strengthen the defenses immediately. Huang Hao opposed this and convinced his lord that a divination was held for the assault. If Liu Shan were to oblige Jiang Wei's request, it would be disastrous for Shu. Liu Shan believed Huang Hao at face value, and the troops were ordered to a stand still. They were understandably overwhelmed when the large Wei army proceeded into Shu. Liu Shan would listen to no other person regarding the invasion, even throwing his protesting son, Liu Chen, out of court.

In 263, Jiang Wei led a desperate counteroffensive against the Wei troops. It ultimately resulted in a grisly failure with many lives lost for Shu. Liu Shan surrendered soon after. He, his wife, and his surviving sons were relocated to Luoyang. He was named Duke of Anle (安楽公). He lived in Luoyang until his death when he was 65 years old and his son, Liu Xun, succeeded his title as duke. Liu Shan's descendants were said to have been slaughtered in the following War of the Eight Princes.

Romance of the Three KingdomsEdit

Romance of the Three Kingdoms invents Liu Shan's childhood name as A Dou. His mother named him after the fortuitous Big Dipper constellation.

When Zhao Yun went to search for Liu Bei's missing family during the escape at Changban, he was unable to save a wounded Lady Mi since she committed suicide as to avoid hampering their flight. After he gave her a makeshift burial, Zhao Yun placed A Dou within his armor and fought his way through Cao Cao's troops alone. Though beaten and wounded Zhao Yun eventually reached Liu Bei and reported what had transpired. Moved by his retainer's loyalty, Liu Bei angrily threw his infant son to the ground. He blamed the crying child for nearly killing one of his greatest retainers. Many readers remark that the crushing blow may have caused Liu Shan's ineptitude.

Liu Shan had doubts in Zhuge Liang's northern campaigns and voiced them to the Prime Minister. While Zhuge Liang was away, Liu Shan started to secretly communicate with Huang Hao. Huang Hao's words appealed to him, and he was easily swayed by whatever the eunuch told him. During Zhuge Liang's absence, Liu Shan drank frequently and his body became weak. Jiang Wan and Fei Yi were ordered to give him strict discipline, but he refused to listen to them. The rest of his activities in the novel roughly mirrors his historical counterpart.