|Located at:|| Echizen Province|
(Owari Province by Nobunaga's time)
|Crest(s)/Banner(s):|| Oda's version of the moukkou (pictured)|
Taira crest: a swallowtail butterfly
Nobunaga's standard: Chinese coins during the reign of the third Ming Emperor, Yongle Emperor
Two horizontal hikiryou
Sixteen leafed chrysanthemum
The paulownia seal
The "style name" character (字) written in Mu cursive script
|Major Figure(s):||Nobunaga, Nagamasu, Nobutada, Nobunari|
The Oda clan (織田氏, Oda-shi), also called Ota clan during the Edo Period, was known as one of the most powerful and rebellious clans in Japan during the Azuchi-Momoyama period. Their power fell into decline when Nobunaga's vassal, Hashiba Hideyoshi, avenged his master's death and became the dominant ruler of the land.
Their origins are unknown and torn between three accounts. According to Nobunaga and his family chart, his clan are distant descendants of the Kammu-Heishi (Taira) from either Taira no Sukemori or Taira no Chikazane. He also claimed that his ancestors were Fujiwara no Toshihito's descendants and wrote at Atsuta Shrine that Sugawara no Michizane was his ancestor. Another story says that they are actually the Imibi clan, servants of the Shiba clan. The idea that they are a clan who began from simple roots in the Ibego or Owari Provinces also exists. What is known for sure is that the Oda was known as a family name during the 1400's.
The mukou is a graceful seal from China which has several different meanings and users. It is said to either be a wisteria flower, a bird's feathers, the sleeping beauty flower or a deviation of the paulownia seal. During the Tang Dynasty, it was originally designed after a bird and its nest, and it was a seal for shrines to represent auspicious hopes for the family's future children. It was first used as a family crest in Japan by Tokudaiji Saneyoshi during the Heian period and it gained several variations ever since.
The following only lists the branch that Nobunaga's known ancestors came from; it does not include Hidenobu's descendants or any other branches.
- Nobuhiro - one of Nobuhide's sons (possibly eldest), opposed Nobunaga's reign but was forgiven
- Nobuyuki (Nobunari) - one of Nobuhide's sons (birth date unknown), opposed Nobunaga's right as clan head and was assassinated by Kawajiri Hidetaka
- Nobukane - one of Nobuhide's sons, known to be calmer and more peace loving than Nobunaga. Was the one who pressed to spare Nagamasa's daughters after the siege of Odani Castle. Protected them for a time and eventually served Hashiba Hideyoshi.
- Nobuharu - Nobuhide's fifth son, died fighting the Azai and Asakura with Mori Yoshinari.
- Nobutoki - Nobuhide's sixth (debated as seventh) son, committed suicide when he was surrounded by troops led by Sakai Kizusaemon's son (Nobunaga is suspected to have pulled strings to have him assassinated).
- Nobuoki - Nobuhide's seventh son, to aid Takigawa Kazumazu's position, he defended Kuwa Castle from the Azai and Asakura armies after Nobuharu's death. Tides turned against him and he committed suicide.
- Hidetaka - Nobuhide's eighth son, written to have been strong and beautiful and is believed to have been called Oichi, "The land's greatest beauty". Wasn't favored by Nobunaga and died when he was 15 or 16 due to disputed causes.
- Hidenari - Nobuhide's ninth son (argued as eighth son), killed during the Sieges of Nagashima in 1574. Stories say that he was sniped by a single rifle shot.
- Nobuteru - Nobuhide's tenth (or ninth) son, lived past Nobuanga's death to served his son, Nobuo. Eventually became a retainer under Honda Tadakatsu and participated in the Battle of Sekigahara. Involved with an interesting episode during the conflict involving Tadakatsu's horse.
- Nagamasu - Nobuhide's eleventh son, evaded capture from Honnoji and served Nobuo. Participated in the Eastern army at Sekigahara and later the Siege of Osaka (killed Gamo Yorisato in the former battle). Converted to Christianity and was given the baptized name, Johan.
- Nagatoshi - Nobuhide's twelfth son, died with Nobutada when the Akechi army surrounded Nijo Castle
- Nobumasa (nicknamed Taito Shigekatsu) - Nobunaga's eldest son (illegitimate), was sent by Hideyoshi to live in a temple and stayed there for the rest of his days.
- Nobukatsu (Nobuo) - Nobunaga's second son, became a point of focus during the Komaki-Nagakute conflict. After he served the Toyotomi family, he surrendered to Tokugawa Ieaysu before the Siege of Osaka.
- Nobutaka - Nobunaga's third son, fought against Akechi Mitsuhide at Yamazaki and joined Shibata Katsuie at Shizugatake. Eventually was forced to commit suicide due to Nobuo and Hideyoshi's insistence.
- Otsugimaru (Hashiba Hidekatsu) - Nobunaga's fourth son, adopted by Hideyoshi in 1579. Mysteriously died when he was 18 with many people believing that his death was planned by his foster father.
- Katsunaga - Nobunaga's fifth son, became a hostage of the Takeda when he was four. Returned to his family in an exchange with Takeda Katsuyori. Died with Nobutada at Nijo Castle.
- Nobuhide - Nobunaga's sixth son, served Hideyoshi after his father's death. Became a chamberlain as the fourth powerful seat in the court and participated in the subjugation of Kyushu. Converted to Christianity and was given the baptized name Petro. Died during his twenties.
- Nobutaka (Hashiba Takajuro) - Nobunaga's seventh son, served Hideyoshi after his father's death. Was given the Echi District and 2,000 koku due to his supposed ties with the Sasaki clan. Present at Sekigahara but did not participate in battle. Died when he was 28.
- Nobuyoshi (Hashiba Musashimori) - Nobunaga's eighth son, stayed with mother (Onabe no Kata) after his father's death but was eventually forced to be employed to Hideyoshi. Joined the Western army with his brother Nagatsugu. Stationed near Otani Yoshitsugu at Sekigahara and survived the conflict to continue serving the Toyotomi family.
- Nobusada - Nobunaga's ninth son, became one of Hideyoshi's cavalry commanders. Member of the Western army who eventually joined Ieyasu's Siege of Osaka.
- Nobuyoshi - Nobunaga's tenth son, adopted by Hideyoshi since he was an infant at the time of Nobunaga's passing. Became a Toyotomi vassal and died in 1609.
- Nagatsugu - Nobunaga's eleventh son, became one of Hideyoshi's cavalry commanders. Joined the Western army with his brother Nobuyoshi but died during the conflict.
- Nobunari - a very distant descendant of Nobunaga's seventh son, Nobutaka
- Tsuchida Gozen - Nobuhide's wife; Nobunaga's mother; said to have despised Nobunaga and was in favor of his brothers.
- Oinu - Nobunaga's younger sister who he adored as much as Oichi; Saji Nobukata and Hosokawa Nobuyoshi's wife.
- Oichi - Nobunaga's youngest sister; Azai Nagamasa and Shibata Katsuie's wife.
- Otsuya - Nobunaga's aunt
- Nōhime - Nobunaga's wife
- Ikoma Kitsuno - Nobunaga's concubine; Nobutada, Nobukatsu and Tokuhime's mother
- Onabe - Nobunaga's concubine; Nobuyoshi and Ofuri's mother
- Tokuhime - Nobunaga's eldest daughter; loosely tied to the Kagemusha Ieyasu theory
- Fuyuhime - Nobunaga's daughter; Gamō Ujisato's wife
- Hideko - Nobunaga's daughter; Tsutsui Sadatsugu's wife
- Eihime - Nobunaga's daughter; Maeda Toshinaga's wife
Seven Spearmen of AsukikizakaEdit
The Seven Spearmen of Asukikizaka (小豆坂七本槍, Asukikizaka Shichihonyari) were seven celebrated generals who Nobuhide considered to have performed exceptionally well during the Battle of Azukizaka. The name is largely derived from local folklore as there are no historical records which mention it.
- Oda Nobumitsu
- Oda Nobufusa
- Okata Shigeyori
- Sassa Matasugu
- Sassa Magasuke
- Nagano Kazuyasu
- Kahō Masanori
Four Guardian Kings of OdaEdit
The Four Guardian Kings of Oda (織田四天王) were four generals Nobunaga personally believed to heavily contribute to his doctrine, Tenka Fubu. Like other titles similar to it, the rank is considered a fabrication developed and romanticized during the Edo period.
Five Great Generals of OdaEdit
The Five Great Generals of Oda (織田五大将) are five generals who Nobunaga also commended for his conquests. It's speculated that this title was mostly created to add Hideyoshi among his list of closest generals.
- Shibata Katsuie
- Niwa Nagahide
- Takigawa Kazumasu
- Akechi Mitsuhide
- Hashiba Hideyoshi
Red and Black Cloaked HorsemenEdit
The Red Cloak Horsemen (赤母衣衆) and Black Cloak Horsemen (黒母衣衆) are two elite calvary units who allegedly patrolled the ally main camp. These men were distinguished generals who served their lords with impeccable devotion and wore a distinctive cloak on the backs of their armor. While the titles sound impressive, it's widely believed they are an invention of the Edo Period and not real.
- Kawajiri Hidetaka
- Nakagawa Shigemasa
- Sassa Narimasa
- Tsuda Moritsuki
- Mōri Yoshikatsu
- Itō Buhei
- Mizuno Tatewaki
- Matsuoka Kurōjirō
- Ikoma Masanosuke
- Hachiya Yoritaka
- Nonomura Masashige
- Maeda Toshiie
- Azai Masasada
- Kinoshita Utanosuke
- Itō Nagahisa
- Yamaguchi Hidanokami
- Sawaki Yoshiyuki
- Mōri Hideyori
- Inoo Hisakiyo
- Hasegawa Kyōsuke
- Fukuzumi Hidekatsu
- Ban Naomasa
- Atsumi Kyobunojo
- Kanamori Nagachika
- Inoko Kazutoki
- Oda Echizennokami
- Katō Yasaburō
- Hirate Masahide
- Hayashi Hidesada
- Sakuma Nobumori
- Sakuma Morishige
- Murai Sadakatsu
- Naito Shōsuke
- Hasakawa Hidekazu
- Kawajiri Hidetaka
- Sakai Masahisa
- Harada Naomasa
- Mori Yoshinari
- Mori Nagayoshi
- Mizuno Nobumoto
- Hori Hidemasa
- Maeda Toshiie
- Sassa Narimasa
- Sakuma Morimasa
- Yamauchi Kazutoyo
- Yanada Masatsuna
- Hachisuka Masakatsu
- Ōta Ushikazu
- Inoe Sadamune
- Ikeda Tsuneoki
- Uozumi Hayato
- Ujiie Naomoto
- Andō Morinari
- Inaba Yoshimichi
- Fuwa Mitsuharu
- Takenaka Hanbei
- Gamō Ujisato
- Isono Kazumasa
- Araki Murashige
- Nakagawa Kiyohide
- Takayama Ukon
- Hosokawa Fujitaka
- Matsunaga Hisahide
- Kuki Yoshitaka
- Kuroda Yoshitaka
- Mori Naritoshi
- Atsuji Sadayuki
- Ikeda Motosuke
- Mutō Kiyohide
- Kanamori Nagachika
- Tokudaiji Sanehisa
This list is mostly for Nobunaga, Nobuo and Nobutaka.
- Shoubada Castle
- Nagoya Castle
- Furuwatari Castle
- Kiyosu Castle
- Komakiyama Castle
- Gifu Castle
- Azuchi Castle
- Tsu Castle
- Ueno Castle
- Tamaru Castle
- Matsugashima Castle
- Nagashima Castle
Myths and TheoriesEdit
Due to Nobunaga's unique characteristics, there are a few myths and legends surrounding him. Here are two of the popular ones.
Nobunaga died before Honnōji?Edit
This particular theory arose due to the number of enemies Nobunaga had in 1570. In the battle of Kanegasaki, Nobunaga was returning to his homebase for the battle. As he was traveling through the mountain area, he was shot by Zenjubo Sugitani. He fell to the ground and the assassin fled. While it's historically accepted that he survived the encounter, there is speculation of Nobunaga's death due to the wound he sustained. It's commonly believed that Nobunaga was furious, but he was actually -in this story- ordering for his wounded state to be held somewhere else in secret. By the time the infamous Incident at Honnōji occurred, his impostor met his end and Nobunaga had already passed away in 1573. His impostor's death date and accomplishments were then accredited under Nobunaga's name.
The possibility of this event occurring is plausible, but it has not been widely accepted by modern historians.
There is no doubt that Nobunaga was bisexual and enjoyed a great deal of lovers during his time. What this section aims to do is to identify who they possibly were. The famous male lover he had was his page, Mori Naritoshi. He valued his page dearly and it's believed that some of Naritoshi's advancements were made based on their relationship with one another. It's debatable whether Naritoshi actually recuperated these feelings, but his last stand with his master is considered to be strange for a page. Here are some of the possible lovers he could have had.
- Oichi - popular for those who believe the plausible theory that Oichi was not a blood relative of Nobunaga. In a few accounts, he did treasure her and he was proud to call her one of the land's beauties. In this scenario, he was attracted to her tall stature and pale skin. There is also some speculation that Chacha was actually Nobunaga and Oichi's child.
- Azai Nagamasa - mainly based on the story that Nobunaga was more attracted to men and was shocked when Nagamasa betrayed him. Nagamasa was said to have been under pressure from his father to gain Nobunaga's trust through any means necessary; in this case, this meant using his good looks.
- Personal harlem - sometime after Azuchi Castle was established, Katsuie gave Nobunaga 60 maidens as a sign of trust between them. They were sent to live in the castle, but over time the population of mistresses, wives and maids rose to 1,000. However, it was more likely established to show off his power rather than personal enjoyment. When he heard the number of young people within the castle, he was relieved that the castle would be well taken care of in his absence. It was said that he would go there to relax and chat with these maidens rather than anything else.
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