|Location:||Yizhou, capital at Chengdu|
|Major General(s):|| Guan Yu|
|Major Battle(s)|| Changbanpo|
Shu (蜀), also known as Shu Han (蜀漢), is one of the three influential kingdoms in the Dynasty Warriors, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Dynasty Tactics series, and Kessen II. In the Dynasty Warriors franchise, the kingdom is symbolized by the color green and a Chinese dragon as a reference to Qinglong. Shu is sometimes symbolized by peach blossoms, a reference to the Peach Garden Oath.
Shu was ruled by Liu Bei, who, along with his sworn brothers Guan Yu and Zhang Fei, spent most of his life in exile wandering from lord to lord to escape Cao Cao, until finally seizing the lands of Shu from his cousin Liu Zhang to establish his kingdom. Shu was also comprised of Hanzhong and Jingzhou. Jing was subsequently conquered by Wu in 219 A.D. In 263 A.D after years of war between Shu and Wei, the Kingdom of Shu Han fell.
The cause of Shu's fall has been debated often over the years. Some attribute it to Jiang Wei's foolishness and political corruption, and some attribute it to Shu's poor lands, which were mountainous and rugged.
Romance of the Three Kingdoms
In the historical novel, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, the kingdom of Shu experienced many troubles, and many triumphs. Before gaining land of his own, Liu Bei had joined the other influential figures against Zhang Jiao and the Yellow Turbans, and also against Dong Zhuo. During that time, Liu Bei gained many followers, including his future oath brothers, Guan Yu and Zhang Fei. To gain a strategist, Liu Bei visited the hermit Zhuge Liang three times. On the third visit, Zhuge Liang agreed to help Liu Bei on his conquest. With the advice of his new ally, Liu Bei gained lands from relatives, and took his own.
Around the year 208, at the naval battle of Chibi, Zhuge Liang had allied with Wu to attack a common adversary, Wei. Zhou Yu, Wu's strategist, devised a master plan with Shu to burn Wei's ships down. While Shu strategist Pang Tong was placed into Wei, in order to persuade the enemy, Zhou Yu tortured a Wu veteran, Huang Gai, making it seem like the latter would turn against his force. Wei believed this trick, and welcomed Huang Gai into their army. Pang Tong had made the Wei army chain their ships together, and when the time was right, Huang Gai and his following unit lit one Wei boat on fire. Zhuge Liang had prayed at an altar for winds to spread the fire, and because of Pang Tong's chain strategy, the Wei fleet had burned to the sea.
In 219, Lu Meng, a strategist for Wu, had gained the land of Jing. Guan Yu, who had been attacking near there at the time, was captured by the alliance of Wu and Wei, and was executed. This enraged Liu Bei, who, in the novel, had sworn along with Zhang Fei and Guan Yu to die on the same day. Ignoring advice from others, Liu Bei went for the attack on Wu, and was met with no success.
In the year 220, Cao Pi seized the imperial throne, and declared that it was the Wei Dynasty. In response, Liu Bei proclaimed himself the new Han Emperor. A few years after, however, after many battles, including the loss at the Battle at Yiling, Liu Bei died of illness. The Shu kingdom's rule was succeeded by Liu Shan, Liu Bei's son. Zhuge Liang had made several invasions to the north, including the Nanman Campaign, but it was a failure. On the sixth attempt, Zhuge Liang, prime minister of Shu, passed away of illness.
Zhuge Liang was succeeded by many, but the last successor was Jiang Wei. He tried to continue the former strategist's plans to invade the north, but each time, he was left with fewer men and supplies. In 263, Wei campaigned against Shu one last time, and succeeded. Jiang Wei tried to rebel, but was killed. Liu Shan, however, gave up and retired, after being named the Duke of Comfort. Many nobles and commoners alike were displaced, and fled.
- Liu Xiong - Liu Bei's grandfather, eventually became an imperial guard in Yanzhou.
- Liu Yuandi - Liu Bei's uncle, born in Yanjing, given name unknown. When Liu Bei was a child, he sent his son and Liu Bei to study with Lu Zhi. His wife stated her discontent with Liu Bei studying with her son, but he ignored her complaints.
- Liu Deran - Liu Yuandi's son, given name unknown. Went to study with Liu Bei as a child.
- Liu Hong - Liu Bei's father, served as a clerk in Yizhou. Went to live with a rich family.
- Liu Yong - Liu Bei's second son, mother unknown, style name was Gongshou. Mutually antagonistic with Huang Hao. Surrendered with Liu Shan.
- Liu Li - Liu Bei's third son, mother unknown, style name was Fengxiao. Married Ma Chao's daughter. Died of illness in 244.
- Liu Feng - Liu Bei's adopted son who served his father as a general.
- Liu Xuan (劉璿) - Liu Shan's eldest son, married Fei Yi's eldest daughter, style name was Wenheng. Was crowned prince but died during Zhong Hui and Deng Ai's revolt.
- Liu Yao - Liu Shan's second son. Surrendered after the fall of Shu Han. Killed during the massive outbreak of riots that followed the War of the Eight Princes.
- Liu Cong - Liu Shan's third son. Surrendered after the fall of Shu Han. Killed during the massive outbreak of riots that followed the War of the Eight Princes.
- Liu Zan - Liu Shan's fourth son. Surrendered after the fall of Shu Han. Killed during the massive outbreak of riots that followed the War of the Eight Princes.
- Liu Chen - Liu Shan's fifth son. Was crowned prince and tried to convince his father to fight to the death to defend Shu. Liu Shan threw him out of the court and Liu Chen was ashamed by his father's decision. Visited ancestral remains before killing his family and himself.
- Liu Xun - Liu Shan's sixth son. Not much more is written about him.
- Liu Qu - Liu Shan's seventh son. Suffered the same fate as Liu Yao, Liu Cong, and Liu Zan.
- Liu Xuan (劉玄) - Liu Yong's grandson, father unknowzan. Fled the riots that killed Liu Shan's sons and lived in Shu. Became a vassal under Li Fu's grandson. A Jin vassal, Sun Sheng, last reported his whereabouts in Chengdu. Since there are no other records about his family or children, he is considered to be the last relative of this branch of the Liu family.
- Empress Gan - First wife of Liu Bei. Mother of Liu Shan. Later named Empress Zhaolie.
- Lady Mi - Second wife of Liu Bei and younger sister of Mi Zhu.
- Lady Sun - Third wife of Liu Bei and Sun Quan's younger sister.
- Empress Wu - Fourth wife of Liu Bei and younger sister of Wu Yi.
- Two unnamed daughters - Liu Bei had them under unknown mothers. Historically captured at Changban by Cao Cao's army before Zhao Yun rescued the rest of Liu Bei's stranded family.
- Lady Xiahou - Wife of Zhang Fei and the mother of Liu Shan's consorts.
- Empress Zhang - First wife of Liu Shan. Zhang Fei's daughter. Mentioned in Romance of the Three Kingdoms to have been wed when she was 17.
- Empress Zhang - Second wife of Liu Shan. Zhang Fei's daughter, younger of the two daughters.
- Concubine Wang - Mistress of Liu Shan. Liu Xuan's mother.
- Consort Li - Mistress of Liu Shan. Said to be favored by him. Said to have been sent to Wei after Shu's downfall to be given to another man. In the story, she refused to accept further humiliation and killed herself.
- unnamed daughter of Liu Shan - Wife of Zhuge Liang's son, Zhuge Zhan.
- unnamed daughter of Liu Shan - Wife of Fei Yi's son, Fei Gong.
- unnamed daughter of Liu Shan - Wife of Guan Xing's son, Guan Tong.
Five Tiger Generals
The Five Tiger Generals (五虎大将軍) are five generals of Shu considered to be of extraordinary value to the kingdom. They include:
- Guan Yu - long-time devoted follower of Liu Bei, killer of Yan Liang, head of the Tiger Generals.
- Zhang Fei - long-time follower of Liu Bei, repelled the armies of Cao Cao at a stand-off at Changban Po.
- Zhao Yun - former officer of Gongsun Zan, savior of Liu Shan.
- Ma Chao - son of Ma Teng, enemy of Cao Cao and head warrior of an esteemed family.
- Huang Zhong - former officer of Liu Biao then Liu Bei, victor over Xiahou Yuan.
There is an absence of an explicit mention of the title and the recognition by Liu Bei in official documents. At the same time, there is a possibility that the generals received the rank posthumously via way of Liu Shan. The Records of Three Kingdoms, however, compiles the biographies of the five within the same chapter and the text's author, Chen Shou, gives an analysis on them collectively. It is also interesting to note that in 219 AD, after Liu Bei appointed himself the King of Hanzhong, the generals with the exception of Zhao Yun were promoted into consecutive high-ranking positions.
The novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms could be another source for the grouping. Chapter 73 gives a passing mention of how they were to become known as the "Five Tiger Generals" after Liu Bei ascended into the role of King of Hanzhong, not unlike history. The rank itself had no administrative or military duties attached to it, so the bestowment is generally seen as one of prestige and as one which would inspire fear into the hearts of enemies, especially considering the meritorious careers of the honorees.
The Four Heroes, or Four Ministers, are a circle of ministers accredited with stabilizing the Shu administration. They were all respected greatly, for the most part trusted by Liu Shan, and were relatively high-up in the civil hierarchy for their kingdom. The term does not seem to refer to any official position, but rather simply as a grouping among the Shu people. It is mentioned in an annotation from Dong Yun's Records of Three Kingdoms entry.
- Zhuge Liang - long-time adviser for the Liu clan, established alliance with Wu, served as co-regent for Liu Shan, led punitive southern and northern expeditions, steadied policies for the kingdom, advanced to General-in-Chief.
- Jiang Wan - recommended as a successor by Zhuge Liang, fair in administrating, advanced to Commander-in-Chief.
- Fei Yi - ambassador to Wu, favored by both Sun Quan and Zhuge Liang, attentive in administrating, humble, advanced to General-in-Chief.
- Dong Yun - remonstrated excess thus was feared by Liu Shan, kept Huang Hao from power and was also feared by him, was entrusted with Liu Shan early on.
The Five Retainers are five generals of Shu who Zhuge Liang, while on his deathbed, advised Yang Yi to retain after his death. In some translations of Romance of the Three Kingdoms, it is portrayed as an actual title rather than a passing suggestion.
- Liao Hua - former Yellow Turban, lived to see the rise, establishment and collapse of Shu.
- Ma Dai - cousin of Ma Chao, slayed the traitor Wei Yan.
- Wang Ping - former general of Wei, brave and competent in strategy, but illiterate.
- Zhang Ni - brave general, sacrificed his life to save Jiang Wei.
- Zhang Yi (Bogong) - friend of Liao Hua, one of Jiang Wei's top generals during the final years of Shu.
- Chen Deng
- Chen Gui
- Chen Shou
- Chen Zhen
- Cheng Ji
- Cheng Qi
- Deng Liang
- Deng Zhi
- Dong Hui
- Dong Jue
- Du Qiong
- Du Wei
- Fa Zheng
- Fei Shi
- Guo Youzhi
- Han Ran
- He Zhi
- He Zong
- Huang Chong
- Huang Hao
- Huang Quan
- Jian Yong
- Jiang Wei
- Lai Gong
- Lai Gong (served Liu Zhang)
- Lai Min
- Li Feng
- Li Fu
- Li Hui
- Li Mi
- Li Shao
- Liu Ba
- Liu Yan
- Liu Yu
- Lu Kai
- Ma Liang
- Ma Su
- Ma Qi
- Mi Zhu
- Pang Tong
- Pang Yi
- Peng Yang
- Qiao Zhou
- Sun Qian
- Wang Fu
- Wang Mou
- Wang Lian
- Xi Zhen
- Xi Zheng
- Xu Shu
- Xu Jing
- Yao Zhou
- Yang Hong
- Yang Xi
- Yang Yi
- Yi Ji
- Yin Mo
- Yin Shang
- Zhang Shao
- Zhao Zhi
- Zhuge Jun
- Zhuge Zhan
- Zong Yu
- Bao Su
- Chang Shi
- Chen Dao
- Chen Shi
- Chen Shou
- Chen Zhi
- Deng Fang
- Deng Fu
- Deng Kai
- Deng Liang
- Ding Li
- Dong He
- Du Lu
- Du Pu
- Du Qi
- Du Rui
- Fan Jian
- Fan You
- Fei Guan
- Feng Xi
- Fu Shiren
- Fu Guan
- Fu Kuang
- Fu Qian
- Fu Shiren
- Fu Tong
- Gao Ding
- Gao Xiang
- Gong Zhi
- Gou An
- Guan Ping
- Guan Xing
- Guan Yi
- Guo Xun
- Han Xuan
- Hao Pu
- He Ping
- Hou Yin
- Hu Ban
- Hu Ji
- Hu Qian
- Hu Zhong
- Huang Chong
- Huang Xu
- Huang Yong
- Huang Yuan
- Huo Jun
- Huo Yi
- Jiang Bin
- Jiang Shu
- Jiang Xian
- Jin Xiang
- Jin Xuan
- Ju Fu
- Lai Min
- Lei Tong
- Lei Xu
- Leng Bao
- Li Yan
- Li Jian
- Li Qiu
- Li Shao
- Li Xin
- Li Zhuan
- Liang Xu
- Liao Hua
- Liu Du
- Liu Min
- Liu Ning
- Liu Pi
- Liu Xian
- Liu Yan
- Liu Yin
- Liu Yi
- Liu Yong
- Liu Zhang
- Lu Bu; style name unknown
- Lu Yi
- Luo Xian
- Ma Miao
- Ma Zhong
- Meng Da
- Mi Fang
- Ning Sui
- Shen Dan
- Shen Yi
- Wang Han
- Wang Lin
- Wang Ping
- Wang Si
- Wei Kai
- Wei Yan
- Wu Ban
- Wu Chang
- Wu Lan
- Wu Yi
- Xi Zhen
- Xiahou Ba
- Xiahou Lan
- Xiang Chong
- Xiang Lang
- Yan Yu
- Yin Shang
- Zhang Bao
- Zhang Cun
- Zhang Nan
- Zhang Ni
- Zhang Yi (Junsi) (served Liu Zhang)
- Zhang Zun
- Zhao Fan
- Zhao Guang
- Zhao Lei
- Zhao Tong
- Zhou Qun
- Zhuo Ying
- Zhuge Gui
- Zhuge Jing
- Zhuge Qiao
- Zhuge Shang
- Zhuge Xuan
- Zhuge Zhi
- Zong Ziqing
- Lady Fan - Called Fan Shi in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms games. Wife of Zhao Fan's brother. Declined in marriage to Zhao Yun.
- Lady Hu - Wife of Liu Yan.
- Lady Xun - Mother of Xu Shu, she committed suicide when her son defected to Wei.
- Lady Huang - Also called Huang Yueying. Zhuge Liang's wife..
Romance of the Three Kingdoms
- Cuan Xi - Possibly fictional. Appeared in chapter 91. Adviser in Zhuge Liang's second campaign against Wei.
- Deng Tong - Possibly fictional. Appeared in chapter 97. Mentioned to have died in the Hanzhong campaign.
- Ding Xian - Possibly fictional. Appeared in chapter 91. General in Zhuge Liang's second campaign against Wei.
- Du Rui - Possibly fictional. Appeared in chapter 102. Sent by Zhuge Liang to supervise the building of Wooden Oxen.
- Du Yi - Possibly fictional. Appeared in chapter 91. Adviser in Zhuge Liang's first campaign against Wei.
- Gou An (苟安) - not to be confused with the actual general Gou An (句安). Appeared in chapter 100. Disobeyed Zhuge Liang's orders and was beaten 80 times. Defected to serve Cao Xiu.
- Guan Suo - Guan Yu's third born fictional son.
- Han Zhen - Possibly fictional. Appeared in chapter 94. Guarded the Xiping Pass against the Qiang tribes.
- Hu Ban - Fictional follower of Cao Cao. Hu Hua's son. Helped Guan Yu's escape and was later invited to serve Shu.
- Lady Cui - Possibly fictional. Appeared in chapter 102. Wife of Liu Chen and commits suicide to join her dead husband.
- Lady Li - Possibly fictional. Appeared in chapter 117. Wife of Ma Miao who killed herself when he surrendered to Wei.
- Lady Xu - Mother of Xu Shu. In the novel, she committed suicide after her son was tricked into serving Cao Cao.
- Li Hu - Possibly fictional. Appeared in chapter 118. Was sent carrying the Shu terms of surrender to Deng Ai.
- Liu Xian - Liu Du's fictional son
- Lu Xun (盧遜) - Defeated Zhong Hui at Nanzheng, but was later killed by Xun Kai.
- Meng You - Meng Jie's younger brother.
- Pei Yuanshao - Former Yellow Turban who tried to steal Red Hare from Guan Yu. Quickly surrendered and introduced Zhou Cang to the general.
- Su Shuang - Appeared in chapter 1. Donated horses to Liu Bei's army.
- Yan Yan - Historically treated as a guest but no distinct records state that he served Shu.
From Other Sources
- Bao Sanniang - Guan Suo's first wife in Hua Guan Suo Zhuan.
- Cai Mao - Did not join Shu historically.
- Cai Wenji - Did not join Shu historically.
- Guan Yinping - Guan Yu's fictional daughter.
- Huang Xiaoyu - Original character from GREE in 100man-nin no Sangokushi. Young girl who is Zhuge Liang's apprentice.
- Ma Yunlu - Originated in the Fan Sanguo Yanyi, she is Ma Teng's daughter, Ma Chao's sister and Zhao Yun's wife.
- Mei Mei, Li Li, and Luo Luo - Original characters from Koei, fictional interpretations of Zhang Fei's daughters.
- Mei Sanniang - Original character from Koei.
- Wang sisters - Originated in the Hua Guan Suo Zhuan, their names are Wang Tao (eldest) and Wang Yue (younger). They are both daughters of Wang Linggong, a thief in Sichuan. Unlike their father, however, the sisters were virtuous and considered heroes. Guan Suo only heard of their father's reputation and captured the elder Wang sister. Wang Tao grew to admire his strength and they were soon married. Wang Yue followed her sister and they became his second and third wives. They are said to have fought by his side in battle and were said to be with Bao Sanniang at Jiameng Gate.
- Sima Ken - Original character from Koei.
- Xingcai - Original character from Omega Force.
- Zhou Cang - First appeared in the Sanguozhi Pinghua. Later popularized in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Former Yellow Turban who came to serve under Guan Yu.
- Lei Bin - Original character from Omega Force
- Xiaolan (小蘭) - Original character from Koei in the manga Sangokushi Koumei Den. Entering Zhuge Liang's household as a maid, her real identity is Qilin, an assassin sent by Cheng Yu. Initially intent on taking his life when the opportunity presented itself, she came to sympathize with the strategist and defected from her employer as a result.
The description of Shu in Romance of the Three Kingdoms is internationally popular in folktales and fiction.
One of the best references to Shu in other fiction would be Water Margin, one of the four classic Chinese epics. In Water Margin, Guan Yu had a fictional grandson, Guan Sheng. He mirrored his ancestor's appearance and inherited his grandfather's weapon, Green Dragon Crescent Blade. Guan Sheng was fifth rank among the 108 stars and was nicknamed "Large Blade". Another character named Lin Chong was described to nearly match Zhang Fei in appearance and also wielded the same snake lance. Lin Chong was the rank after Guan Sheng, nicknamed "Panther Head", and also had an oath brother named Lu Zhishen. Yang Xiong, who was another of the 108 stars, was also known under the nickname "Ill Guan Suo".
Additionally, both Guan Sheng and Lin Chong were two of the Five Tiger Generals of Mount Liang.
- Guan Sheng
- Lin Chong
- Qin Meng - 7th ranked spirit
- Huyan Zhuo - 8th ranked spirit
- Dong Ping - 16th ranked spirit
In Japan, the famous three visits that Liu Bei did to recruit Zhuge Liang is adapted for Hashiba Hideyoshi and Takenaka Hanbei. The Taikoki recorded Hideyoshi visiting the hermit three times to appeal to him. Their "Guan Yu" was Hachisuka Masakatsu (Hachisuka Masatoshi's eldest son) and their "Zhang Fei" was Maeno Nagayasu (Tsubouchi Mitsukage). Mitsukage was said to have highly favored Masakatsu and they became sworn brothers.
In select Chinese accounts of Japanese history, Hideyoshi's intellect was compared to Zhuge Liang and Tokugawa Ieyasu's physical might was compared to Guan Yu.
- Cao Cao (before the Battle of Bowang Slope)
- Wu (before Guan Yu's capture and death at the Battle of Fan Castle and after Yiling.)
- Nanman (after the Nanzhong campaigns and the seven captures of Meng Huo)
- Qiang tribes (during the battle of Yiling)
- Wu (after Guan Yu's capture and death at the Battle of Fan Castle and during Yiling)
- Yuan Shu (after declaring himself emperor)
- Nanman (before the Nanzhong campaigns and the seven captures of Meng Huo)
- Qiang tribes (during the later years of Shu)
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