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Zhang Hong

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Sangokushi 12~13 portrait

Zhang Hong (張紘, onyomi: Chō Kō) is a minister of Wu. He and Zhang Zhao were known as the Two Zhangs.

Roles in GamesEdit

Romance of the Three Kingdoms gives Zhang Hong a very high politics stat in the 90's, as well as high intelligence and charisma stats in the 80's. His battle skills are fairly low in comparison, ranging in the 20's. Together with Zhang Zhao, he is among the highest ranked officials in Wu in most scenarios. The eleventh installment features a special recruitment event, where Sun Ce employs both Zhang Zhao and Zhang Hong at Zhou Yu's recommendation. Should the player's ruler be Sun Jian, however, a debate must be won first. Losing the debate will render the player unable to employ both of them for a few months.

In Dynasty Tactics, Zhang Hong is a supporting officer. His officer skill is the Diplomat, which allows him to negtotiate with enemy forces and safely pass through their territories. He is friends with Zhang Zhao, Gu Yong, Yan Jun and Kong Rong, making it possible for him to employ these officers.

Historical InformationEdit

Zhang Hong (153-212, style name: Zǐgāng) was born in Guangling Commandery of Xu Province. During his youth, he studied in the capital Luoyang, dealing with ancient writings and poetry. When he returned home, he was often recommended by Zhao Yu and others to serve in the office of the Excellencies or serve in the provincial government, but he declined the offers each time. Being a friend of the Sun family, Sun Ce left his mother and his younger brothers in Zhang Hong's care when he approached Yuan Shu for troops. After being threatened by Tao Qian, Zhang Hong and the Sun family moved south into Wu Commandery. When Sun Ce established his control over Wu in 195, Zhang Hong joined him and became Sun Ce's chief counselor alongside Zhang Zhao. One of them would accompany him into battle while the other stayed behind at the headquarters.

In 197, due to his literary skills, Sun Ce tasked Zhang Hong with writing a memorial to the Han court and form an alliance with Cao Cao. Two years later in 199, Zhang Hong was sent to Xuchang and Cao Cao appointed him as a member of the secretariat. During his time in Cao Cao's service, Zhang Hong effectively served as an ambassador for the Sun family. He advised Cao Cao to recognize Sun Quan's succession of Sun Ce in 200 and to grant him the titles of General and Administrator of Kuaiji. However, Cao Cao sent him back later that year and made him Commandant of Kuaiji Commandery, indicating that he served as his agent to monitor Sun Quan's actions. Lady Wu also asked Zhang Hong to supervise Sun Quan's government, which made Sun Quan feel quite uneasy.

Zhang Hong compiled an account of Sun Jian's and Sun Ce's careers, which greatly pleased Sun Quan and possibly served as the base for the first two chapters of the Wu section in Chen Shou's Sanguozhi. In 202, Sun Quan sent Zhang Hong back to Kuaiji and always refered to him as "Eastern Division" instead of his name, indicating both respect and distance. Zhang Hong then sent one of his officers to Langye Commandery to enlist the aid of the Chancellor Zang Xuan to search for survivors of his old patron Zhao Yu, who had been killed by Tao Qian's general Zhai Rong roughly a decade ago. His officer found a five-year-old boy to maintain the ancestral sacrificies and Zhang Hong was admired for his loyalty.

In 207, Sun Quan went on a campaign against Huang Zu in Jiangxia and recalled Zhang Hong to put him in charge of the affairs at the base during his absence. In 208, Zhang Hong became Chief Clerk and accompanied Sun Quan on the campaign against Hefei, which was defended by Liu Fu, Cao Cao's Governor of Yang Province. During the battle, Zhang Hong advised Sun Quan to not risk his life so easily when he wanted to charge at the enemy. One year later, Sun Quan planned another campaign, but Zhang Hong persuaded him to consolidate his rule at home. He also encouraged him to move the capital to Jianye.

In 212, Zhang Hong traveled to Wu in order to recollect his family, but he took ill on the road and died. He left ten plan of poetry, inscriptions, eulogies and rhapsodies. He was greatly praised for his calligraphy and admired by Kong Rong and Chen Lin. He had two sons, Zhang Jing and Zhang Xuan.

Romance of the Three KingdomsEdit

Zhang Hong makes his first appearance in chapter 15 of the novel. Zhou Yu told Sun Ce of two famous geniuses known as the "Two Zhangs", Zhang Zhao and Zhang Hong. Sun Ce tried to employ them by sending them some gifts, but they both declined until Sun Ce went to them in person. Zhang Hong accompanied Sun Ce on his campaign in Wu Commandery and dissuaded him from accepting Yan Yu's challenge, reminding him of his value to the army. After Sun Ce's conquest of Wu, Zhang Hong is sent to the capital with a memorial of his success for Emperor Xian. There, he is kept by Cao Cao at his side.

Some days later, Zhang Hong returned to Wu and told Sun Ce that Cao Cao would fear him, but also that Guo Jia described him as an impulsive, shallow, frivolous individual who would one day be murdered by his own men, which greatly angered the sick Sun Ce. Soon enough, Sun Ce died and Zhang Hong returned to the capital, where he dissuaded Cao Cao from taking advantage of Sun Ce's death and attacking the southland, instead persuading him to bestow the title of General and Governor of Kuaiji upon Sun Quan. Additionally, Cao Cao sent Zhang Hong back to Sun Quan, who was greatly pleased by Zhang Hong's return and tasked him to join Zhang Zhao in the country's administration. Zhang Hong also recommended Gu Yong to join Sun Quan.

In chapter 38, Zhang Hong was sent with Gu Yong to employ various talented men from Kuaiji Commandery and in chapter 44, he is among the officials who represent Sun Quan's faction during the meeting between Zhou Yu and Zhuge Liang. During the first battle at Hefei, after Sun Quan was defeated and Song Qian killed, Zhang Hong advised his lord to focus on his own safety instead of engaging the enemy blindly. In chapter 61, Zhang Hong returned to his home because of an illness and died. In his testament, he wrote to Sun Quan that he should move the capital to Moling. Sun Quan told his men that Zhang Hong remained sincere till his death and ordered the construction of a city in Moling, while renaming the land of Moling itself to Jianye.

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